Precision and ultra precision machining technology
Core tip: future parts will increase the design and manufacture of a function of the surface structure and by the micro structure of surface design and processing of parts of different shapes, so as to improve the function of parts in mechanics, optics, electromagnetics, such as entrance, which is micro nano manufacturing of important applications, 2006 to set up international nano manufacturing Institute expert discussions and think, nano manufacturing core technology will from the current based on MEMS technology gradually shifted ultra precision...
At the beginning of the sixties of the 20th century, with the development of space technology, precision ultra precision machining technology in the United States was first put forward and as a result of the financial support from the government and the military and rapid development, the 1970s Japan has also set up a ultra precision machining technology committee and to develop the corresponding development plan, the technology was included in the high technology industry, after years of development, Japan in civil optical, electronic and information products and other industries in the world leading position.
In recent years, the United States began to implement "plan key technology of micron and nano technology" countries, the Defense Department set up a special committee on coordination work. The LIFO Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Moore (Moore), etc. in the ultra precision machining technology in the field of prestigious. Japanese institutions focus on the development of civilian products required for ultra precision machining equipment and technology, camera, TV, copiers, projectors, etc. civil optical industry, the rapid development of its advanced ultra precision machining technology has a direct relationship, Germany and Switzerland also in the production of precision machining and testing equipment is famous in the world. From the beginning of 2000, the United States and Europe began to implement the nano manufacturing technology research and development technology, to further strengthen and promote the development of ultra precision machining technology.
The real system to put forward the concept of ultra precision machining technology is from 1980s, from the aerospace industry demand for high precision parts. The milestone is aspheric ultra precision machining equipment developed and the equipment before that, only a few countries like the United States, Western Europe and Japan to production, the introduction of domestic is strictly limited and expensive. To "Nine Five" at the end, the domestic unit has been successfully developed, completely breaking the blockade of foreign technology. Along with the rapid development of the ultra precision machining equipment and technology, the ultra precision machining technology application areas is the army industry extended to the civilian industry.
The important role of Ultraprecision Machining Technology
Precision and ultra precision machining technology_bb娱乐官网 can promote the development of modern science foundation. NASA to verify Einstein's general theory of relativity gravity field bending effect and inertial drag effect two predicted. From 1963 began to plan, but until 2004 fired a using device for measuring high precision gyroscope -- gravitational detector, used to measure the earth's gravity on the impact of the surrounding space-time. The core components of the gyroscope, the quartz rotor (38.1 mm) the ball really reached 7.6 nm, if the rotor is enlarged to the earth dimension, earth surface wave crests and troughs error requirement is only 2.4 meters, such a high machining accuracy can be said the ultra precision machining technology to its limits.
Precision and ultra precision machining technology_bb娱乐官网 is the foundation of modern high-tech industry development. Not really grasp the core technology in transportation, energy, information, biological medicine, etc. high technology industry, key equipment or components is still dependent on imports, such as domestic production of high performance bearing due to the materials, technology and other aspects, life is far from enough to meet the requirements. In recent years, domestic anti fatigue manufacturing technology research is based on the processing of fatigue strength and fatigue life criterion, one of the core technology is the precision and ultra precision grinding and polishing process.
Precision and ultra precision machining technology_bb娱乐官网 is an important technical support of the modern high technology war. Ultra precision machining technology of defense weapons and equipment development has great influence, master ultra precision machining technology and have the corresponding production capacity is a necessary means of modern national defense technology and armament cutting-edge technology defense industry involvement, at the beginning of the 1990s, the United States will listed as 21 U. S. defense is one of the key technologies. Such as weapons and equipment and imaging guidance of key components determines the accuracy of the precision strike, attacking ability, precision machining and testing the nozzle and blade will affect the performance of the engine.
Precision and ultra precision machining technology_bb娱乐官网 is an important symbol to measure the level of national manufacturing. The constant pursuit of manufacturing technology is the goal of quality and efficiency, which is the quality of precision and performance. Europe and the United States and other countries in precision and ultra precision machining technology has a very high level, also level of manufacturing industry in these countries in the world in a absolutely leading position, and in China in recent years because of the national attention, manufacturing has made considerable progress, but at present also can only be described as a manufacturing power, to move to a manufacturing power, in concern intelligent manufacturing should also be pay attention to improve precision in ultra precision machining technology level.
The development trend of precision and ultra precision machining technology
The basis of ultra precision machining technology theory and experiment needs further development. The basis of ultra precision machining technology theory refers to the basic law and the phenomenon of ultra precision machining process description. For example, ultra precision machining process system in multi physical quantity of mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic and gas / field complex coupling mechanism and the system dynamic characteristics and the dynamic precision and stability to ensure need get the support of the new theory. Using molecular dynamics simulation technique to study the nanoscale machining process can be described in atomic size, transient cutting process, in a certain extent, reflect the material micro removal mechanism, but all that remains to be on the experimental verification.
The processed material and process are also expanding. With the increase of missile flight speed, rival cover the wear resistance of the material and high temperature resistance requirements improve, head cover material from the infrared to the development of sapphire and diamond shapes from spherical to non spherical and the development of the free surface, the ultra precision machining equipment, technology and testing technology put forward new requirements. Anti fatigue manufacturing technical requirements and organization structure damage and stress state parameter control of workpiece surface and sub surface, put forward a new direction for the development of ultra precision machining technology.
Ultra precision machining technology of micro nano structure surface has great function. Micro structure surface with certain topological shape, structure and size is generally 10-100 micron, the surface accuracy of less than 0.1 micron, the surface micro structure with rules of texture structure, high depth width ratio, geometric characteristics determine the characteristics, such as groove array, micro lens array, a pyramid array structure, the surface micro structure makes components with certain function, can pass the material physical and chemical properties, such as adhesion, friction, lubricity, wear resistance, or have a specific optical properties. For example, in aviation, spacecraft surface macro processing a micro nano structure surface, not only can be reduced and the vehicle drag, friction, can also avoid freezing layer is formed, to improve aerodynamics and thermodynamics function, so as to achieve growth, raising process, noise reduction, and the surface specific micro structural features but also to stealth capabilities, to enhance the penetration ability. Future parts will increase the design and manufacture of a function of the surface structure and by the micro structure of surface design and processing of parts of different shapes, so as to improve the function of parts in mechanics, optics, electromagnetics, such as entrance, it will be micro nano manufacturing is an important application areas, established in 2006, the nano manufacturing Institute expert discussions and think, nano manufacturing core technology will from the current based on MEMS technology gradually shifted ultra precision machining technology.
Ultra precision machining to the pursuit of efficiency. Ultra precision machining technology at the beginning of the development is to ensure the final accuracy of some key parts, so now is not the processing efficiency as the goal, pay more attention to the accuracy and surface quality. But with the further processing of parts size increases and the number increased, for example, laser fusion ignition device requires more than 7000 pieces of 400 mm square of KDP crystal, if there is no high efficiency ultra precision processing technology, processing time can not imagine.
Ultra precision machining technology will be developed to the extreme direction. The 10 meter diameter telescope mirror, small to microstructure features of several microns processing needs of ultra precision machining equipment and technology support, optical freeform surface precision request is high, the shape is complex, and some are even unable to use equation, but due to its excellent optical performance in recent years, expanding the scope of application, the design, manufacture and testing technology remains to be further development. Ultra precision machining technology is great parts of the high accuracy, small parts and features high accuracy, extremely complex environment of high accuracy, high precision and extremely complex structure of the ultimate direction of development.
Ultra precision machining technology development Xiang Chao precision manufacturing technology. Ultra precision machining technology at the beginning of the development is to improve the precision and the surface quality of the parts, usually for the final procedure. As the product requirements increase, the development process of some parts of the manufacturing process or the products are covered by the concept of "ultra precision". For example, with the high precision inertial sensor structures of small type, size, shape and position accuracy of sub micron, tiny structure component clamping, positioning, find is fine, tool miniaturization and measurement of microscopic, tiny structure component processing and assembly technique of a series of technical problems requirements to establish the system of the ultra precision micro processing equipment and technology, micro measurement, assembly technology platform, to achieve the ultra precision machining of single process to the whole process of the evolution of the ultra precision manufacturing.
Large astronomical telescope lens manufacturing, small to large scale integrated circuit and micro nano size and characteristics of components, ultra precision machining technology from the beginning of the development has been facing constant challenges. Current precision and ultra precision machining technology to continue to study the new theory, new technology and new method, at the same time, toward the direction of high performance, the ultimate, and through parts of the manufacturing process or the entire product development process, to the precision and ultra precision manufacturing technology development. With the continuous development of China's precision and ultra precision machining technology and other infrastructure and progress, will lay the foundation for intelligent manufacturing technology, and ultimately from a big manufacturing country to a powerful leap.